Thursday, April 8, 2010

Recent article about Anti-ship Missile joining PLAN

Recently, an article came out that talked about a YJ series missile that appeared in the 60th anniversary parade last October. From the text, it appears to be talking about the latest version of YJ-83. Here is the article in Chinese:

2009年10月1日,国庆60周年阅兵式上,我国新型“鹰击”系列反舰导弹顺利经过天安门广场,光荣地接受了祖国和人民的检阅。

“此型导弹是我军第一型大射程、命中精度高、抗干扰能力强、全数字化导弹……”解说员清晰的声音随电波传遍世界各地。这一刻,无数中华儿女的心在沸腾。

作为我军现役的新型主力反舰导弹,它们具有什么性能?研制背后发生了哪些故事?记者专门采访了国庆60周年受阅新装备监造者、海军驻某导弹总装工厂军事代表室总代表李耀国大校。

零故障参加国庆首都阅兵

记者:作为国庆装备的直接监造者,你们军代表的内心肯定充满了无比的自豪和荣耀,能不能谈谈当时的情况?

李耀国:这是一项光荣的任务啊!2009年6月,当上级机关把作为阅兵装备的新型反舰导弹监造任务下达给我们军代表室时,我们全室同志无比兴奋。但是,交付周期比正常的生产周期大大缩短,困难可想而知。

在装备生产过程中,军代表室指派专业组长周传忠、业务骨干李锋两名同志倒班工作,吃住在工厂,确保阅兵装备得到全过程质量监督。有一天,大家晚上加班到9点多,在弹翼接头材料分析时,突然发现:有几件产品强度性能指标虽然在合格范围内,但已经接近下限。

厂家的现场指挥人员准备安排第二天上班再排故,周传忠急忙劝阻,建议把设计人员接到现场排故。在等待的过程中,他耐心地对现场工人说:“今晚故障不排除,整个进度就会受到影响,交装的时间就可能延误,部队训练的时间就会相应减少,部队完成阅兵任务的压力就会加大。今晚不管干到几点,故障不清除决不能休息。”

随即,他又找来相关生产记录和资料认真研究,直到凌晨3点多故障才顺利排除。

记者:都说细节决定成败。在航空航天高科技领域,是不是尤为明显?

李耀国:是的。干航天,就要有这样过细的作风。记得该型导弹首次助推弹试验那天,随着一声令下,导弹呼啸着冲了出去,现场的人群欢呼起来。这是此型导弹首次试验,发射出去即意味着成功。

回到住处,现场的人员都互相祝贺,还燃放起了鞭炮。我们军代表却没有被表面的成功迷惑,而是像往常一样,回到房间后打开了现场录取的数据,认真地分析起来。通过对导弹推力数据和弹道数据进行研究分析,与发射的现场录像进行比对,我们发现导弹的初始弹道数据有些下降,数值不大,单从发射场面上是根本看不出来的。

于是,我们立刻找来总师和相关技术员,提出了自己的看法。这个问题在现试验阶段看起来可能不是问题,但是若带入到下一个试验阶段,可能是一个致命的问题。因为弹道下沉,说明推力不足,导致速度不足,从而直接影响后续的舵面控制,后果将是灾难性的。

听完这一席话,刚才还兴高采烈的同志们马上就变得鸦雀无声。于是,大家连夜召开了分析会,对助推器进行改进,增大初始燃烧面积。通过后续试验验证,问题得到圆满解决。

记者:类似这样的情况肯定有很多,能不能谈谈在研制这型导弹的过程中发生的难忘故事?

李耀国:的确是这样,每一型武器研制的背后,都充满了艰辛,也留下了许多难忘的记忆。

记得导弹对海攻击试验时正值冬季,室外的气温是零下20多摄氏度。研制人员和军代表们每天都在寒风凛冽的机场露天办公。当时导弹在挂上战机出发后,突然出现高度测量误差。这对于掠海攻击的导弹来说,是非常致命的。大家分析半天,一直没有找到原因。后来,在检测导弹时,无意中发现高度表内有一小滴冷凝水!原来高度表在生产过程中密封性不强,混入了水蒸气。经过高空环境后结成冰霜,下来后终于现了原形。故障很快被排除
性能六大方面新突破

记者:作为国庆60周年首都阅兵,我国最先进反舰导弹,新型“鹰击”系列导弹都有哪些突破?与国外先进导弹相比有哪些优势?

李耀国:国产新型反舰导弹在前一型导弹的基础上作了重大改进,主要有六大方面突破:

一是由模拟体制改成了数字体制,由中控计算机实施整体控制,缩小了体积,操控性、稳定性更好;二是射程大大增加,是原型弹的一倍,并具有了航路规划能力;三是弹头性能提升,捕捉目标的能力提高,抗干扰能力大增;四是使用性能大大改善,导弹的准备时间压缩,操作程序简化;五是具有广泛适装性,能在多型飞机、多型舰艇上使用;六是使用寿命提高,又大大方便了部队官兵使用。

至于说与国外的先进导弹相比,因为没有直接的比试,不能轻易下结论。但我可以说,和国外的先进导弹相比,它应该处于国际先进水平,有些方面甚至是领先的。

比如,我们这型导弹高可靠性,无论是试验阶段还是部队实际使用,几乎没有失败过。再比如,可维护性、保存性、操作性等方面,我们也有优势。当然还有一点,我们造价也肯定比国外便宜,这是毋庸置疑的。

记者:很多军事爱好者都注意到,现役很多反舰导弹都有掠海飞行能力,那么导弹飞行高度是不是越低越好呢?导弹末端机动能力是不是一个方向?

李耀国:掠海飞行是反舰导弹的一大特点。主要是因为舰艇预警雷达受地球曲率的影响有盲区,掠海飞行可以躲过雷达的探测,达到突然袭击的效果。现在反舰导弹的平飞高度一般在20米左右,到末端后能达到5-7米,这对于躲避雷达来讲,已经足够了。如果高度再下降,很容易就被卷进大海里,国外在试验时就曾发生过类似的悲剧。

末端的机动能力,是导弹增强突防能力一个重要手段,也是一个发展方向。

具备高亚音速飞行能力

记者:大家知道,俄罗斯“现代”级导弹驱逐舰上的“马斯基特”反舰导弹具有超音速飞行的能力,而欧美的一些知名导弹却都采用了高亚音速。这是为什么呢?

李耀国:超音速和亚音速是两个并行的方向,谈不上哪个一定好。虽然超音速导弹速度快,但在技术上存在着一些根本性问题。

首先是射程不足。为了“跑得快”,燃料消耗大,射程就受到影响。导弹要多装燃料,弹头就要减轻,杀伤力也会受到影响。

其次是容易暴露。为保证足够射程,超音速反舰导弹通常要进行中高空飞行,这就把自己置于敌防御雷达的水平视线以上,在理论上给了对方更多预警时间。而且,在飞行过程中,超音速导弹正面的红外特征要比亚音速导弹高20~50倍,装备了新型红外信号转换系统的军舰很容易发现。

再次是应变能力不强。超音速反舰导弹同样依靠雷达搜索追踪目标。处理同样的目标数据,超音速导弹比亚音速导弹的时间少60%。一旦遇到干扰,导弹很可能还没来得及分辨清楚,就一下子飞过去了。而且因为速度太快,超音速导弹如果在第一回合里错过目标,就没有第二次机会了。

最后是费用昂贵。因为超音速反舰导弹对导弹的机动性要求极高,需要用一些特殊材料。计算结果表明,超音速反舰导弹的耗费要比亚音速反舰导弹高1.5倍。

我国下一代反舰导弹,会朝着更高的目标迈进。我相信,经过我国科技人员的努力,中国“鹰击”系列反舰导弹一定能保持自己的优势,在激烈的国际竞争中力求保持先进水平。(记者 钱晓虎 特约记者 姜毅 照片由记者 张雷提供)


The relevant parts translate to something like this:
In the 60th anniversary national parade, China's new YJ series AShM shined. It was announced as China's first long range, high accuracy, fully digital missile with high resistance to ECM.

An interview with admiral Li from a naval missile assembly factory.
Started off by mentioning some of the things that happened as they were producing/preparing the missiles for the parade. The typical propoganda in these kind of articles that try to drum up the situation.
Talks about the importance of making sure every little details are right in aerospace industry. When this missile did its first flight testing, everything looked good from the ground. But when they went back and looked at the missile thrust figures and missile trajectory figures, they found that some of the testing figures were less than expected. These are the things you can find by first look. It then talked about another case where the missile misjudged the height in an extremely cold testing environment when it was launched off aircraft. It took a long time before they found out it was due to bad production quality which threw off the instrument measuring the height.

The next part talks about the 6 areas that this missile improved on previous designs:
  1. Going from Analog to fully digital with a central computer providing overall control.
  2. The range increased 100% and also has ability to plan the flight path.
  3. Seeker technology has increased, can find target better and improved anti-jamming capability.
  4. Has improved usability, preparation time decreased and procedure is simplified
  5. Can be used on many platforms (multiple types of aircraft and ships.
  6. Has longer service life.

Admiral says that he believes YJ missile is comparable to the most advanced missiles in the world and even exceed them in certain areas. It is very reliable and has rarely failed in tests and live firing.

He says that most missiles fly at 20 m height toward the target and then dips to 5 to 7 m in the terminal phase. There is really no need to fly any lower, which could cause it to be swallowed by water. Improving terminal maneuvering is an important part of missile development.

He then talks about the cons of supersonic missiles. btw, nothing he mentioned is new if you have ever followed one of those supersonic vs subsonic discussion threads. He says that the missile would have to either sacrifice range or warhead size due to the higher speed of supersonic missiles. He says that they have to fly higher which causes them to be picked earlier by ship radars. They also have 20 to 50 times larger infrared signature, which would allow latest IRST to pick them up easily. The also have much less time to search for target due to the faster speed. They probably have 60% less time to process information. When facing ECM, they might not have a second chance to find the target if something goes wrong the first time it's trying to target. Supersonic missiles also cost more to use than subsonic missiles (1.5 times as much). I'm a little confused here because I think the supersonic missiles cost more than that much more. So, he might have just been talking about maintenance and usage cost.

10 comments:

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Pui said...

What do you think about the Indian's Brahmos hypersonic missiles. Will they give India advantage over China's missiles. Do you know whether China has similar technology, since Russia is reluctant to share this tech. to China.

Feng said...

Brahmos is just Yakhont with different guidance, which is a downgraded version of Onyx. I just think China was never really into getting missiles from the Russians when they are so far along in their own programs.

Type99 said...

@Pui

Russia has exported Moskit anti ship and Kh31 Anti Radiation missile. Both Ramjet technology. Plus China had its own Ramjet anti ship missiles. So saying Russians have transferred alot contrary to what Indian defence forums say.

Seperately

Whats the range of missle?

hbogyt said...

@Pui

I think Feng is too averse to pissing contest to answer Pui directly.

I think from this article, it's pretty clear that India Brahmos is no match for the newest version of YJ-83.

Question @ Feng

I've heard that Brahmos can only achieve the 280km range using hi-hi-lo flight profile, is it true?

timurelame said...

I heard the PLA is now researching stealth cruise missiles.

Perhaps they are also working on something similar to S-400 SAMs.

ao said...

Guys, let's give India a break. We understand why they flame us on their blogs and forums. Nevertheless, we shouldn't do the same to them. As for BrahMos, it is far more superior to YJ-12, in terms of guidance, service life, reliability and speed. AShMs are vital for carriers. It's no suprise that India wants them built fast. Although, I am in doubt of India's ship-borne ABM systems... Furthermore, Feng, you shouldn't really take officer reviews too seriously, especially those within the PLAN. My cousin's father will promote to a rear admiral in 2011; the only thing his dad talks about is aircraft carriers and how he will do everything in his power to attain approval for it from the next prez...

Feng said...

For the so called YJ-12 or Chinese supersonic AShM, we haven't seen that being developed even though people have talked about it for so long. Not really sure I want to talk about a system not really viable yet. I think supersonic will get to a point where it can solve enough issues that it will be worthwhile, but it has not got there yet.

Yes, Brahmos is 280 km in hi-lo profile and 120 km is lo-lo profile. In that sense, sunburn is like that too.

odessaguy said...

God help those who might have to fight the next major war. The weapons in use today are so accurate and so lethal that few will escape. The precision guided weapons can be produced in huge numbers inexpensively. The militarys of large nations at war with one another simply will be devastated. I'm an old man now, I served in the USAF when I was young and have some understanding of military matters.
Howard, Florida

TC said...

i was hoping for some reports about ASBM from the variant of DF-21, obviously it undergone a major adjustment for the moment.